Melanoma and Skin Cancer Awareness Month Campaign

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Black banner with overlay text reading Melanoma and Skin Cancer Awareness Month. Image of beach umbrella, sunglasses, the sun and sunscreen in the background

About Melanoma and Skin Cancer Awareness Month

Melanoma and Skin Cancer Awareness Month is an annual opportunity to raise awareness about melanoma and skin cancer, as well as focus on research into their cause, prevention, diagnosis, treatment and survivorship. The goal is to support those affected by melanoma and skin cancer and encourage health-promoting behaviors such as monitoring changes in skin appearance, avoiding indoor tanning and following sun safety practices. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), skin cancer is the most common form of cancer in the United States (CDC, 2020). Melanoma and Skin Cancer Awareness Month begins on May 1st and ends on May 31st. The first Monday of May is designated as “Melanoma Monday.” The Friday before Memorial Day is designated as “Don’t Fry Day” to encourage sun safety awareness (National Council on Skin Cancer Prevention, 2019).

Data and Statistics

In 2018, the latest year for which incidence data is available, 83,996 cases of melanoma were reported and 8,199 people died of this cancer in the United States alone (U.S. Cancer Statistics Working Group, 2021). For every 100,000 people, 22 new melanoma cases were reported and two people died of this cancer (U.S. Cancer Statistics Working Group, 2021). Melanoma accounts for the vast majority of skin cancer deaths (American Cancer Society [ACS], 2021).

Current recommendations by the United States Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) indicate that the evidence is insufficient to assess the balance of benefits and harms of visual skin examination by a clinician to screen for skin cancer in adults (USPSTF, 2018).  However, USPSTF recommends counseling individuals ages six to 24 years, including young adults, adolescents, children and parents of young children with fair skin types, about minimizing ultraviolet (UV) radiation exposure (USPSTF, 2018).

Early detection and prevention continue to be proven tools to reduce the burden of melanoma in the United States. Risk factors like indoor tanning (which significantly increases lifetime risk of melanoma) pose a significant threat. According to the 2019 Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System, 4.5% of American high schoolers reported using indoor tanning devices, with White high school-aged female students using indoor tanning the most (CDC, 2019). Data from the 2017 National Youth Risk Behavior survey reports that nationwide, 57.2% of high school students reported a sunburn in the previous year (Kann et al., 2018; Holman et al., 2018).

Best Practices for Communicating About Melanoma and Skin Cancer

Messages around melanoma and skin cancer prevention should (1) provide education about risk factors and prevention strategies; (2) highlight the dangers of indoor tanning and correct misinformation about tanning and pro-tan social norms; and (3) emphasize the importance of policy, systems and environmental (PSE) change strategies to reduce the impact of skin cancer and melanoma at the community level. When crafting materials and messages, always consider the health literacy level of your audience and use plain language.

Image of pyramid showing strategies to reduce the impact of melanoma and skin cancer

Messages Should...

Provide education about risk factors and prevention strategies

  • Emphasize that sun exposure can be risky even when engaging in brief, daily activities such as walking your dog or waiting for the bus. Some people may think about sun safety only when they spend a summer day at the beach or pool (ACS, 2019).
  • Avoid promoting sunscreen as the only form of skin sun protection. Combine sunscreen with protective clothing, wide-brimmed hats, sunglasses, and shade (CDC, 2020a).
  • Educate your audience about the possible signs and symptoms of melanoma, like the “ABCDE rule” (Asymmetry, Border, Color, Diameter, Evolving) (ACS, 2019a).
  • Present information in formats that are clear and easy to understand. People preferred genetic risk information about melanoma to be presented in visuals (Hamilton et al., 2020; Smit et al., 2015).
  • Encourage your audience to know their family history, as a family history of melanoma can elevate an individual’s risk for the disease. Knowing family history can motivate one to take steps to reduce their risk of melanoma. (Bowen et al., 2017).
  • Inform your audience that for people of color, skin cancer is often diagnosed too late, making it harder to treat (Skin Cancer Foundation, 2021). During routine patient visits, clinicians should be aware that skin cancer can occur in people of color when meeting with patients for regular visits.
  • Skin cancer in people of color are often found in less sun-exposed areas of the body (Skin Cancer Foundation, 2021). Encourage these individuals to perform regular full-body skin exams, especially on less sun-exposed areas of the body such as the palms and soles of the feet.  

Highlight the dangers of indoor tanning and correct misinformation about tanning and pro-tanning norms

  • Emphasize both the costs of engaging in indoor tanning and the benefits of avoiding it. Health communication messages can use either a gain frame (emphasizing the benefits of avoiding risky behaviors), a loss frame (emphasizing the costs of participating in risky behavior) or a balanced frame (emphasizing both gain and loss themes relatively equally). Evidence suggests that both loss- and balanced-framed messages are effective (Mays & Evans, 2017).
  • Use graphical images when conveying the dangers of indoor tanning. Warnings about indoor tanning are most effective when they include visuals and loss framing (Hamilton et al., 2020; Mays & Tercyak, 2015). 
  • Avoid addressing myths associated with tanning and present the preferred message clearly. Referring to myths, such as having a “base tan” protects you against a sunburn or believing that there is no need for sun protection on cloudy days, does not necessarily decrease an individual’s desire to tan (Truong et al., 2021).
  • Remind individuals of the people who would approve of them quitting indoor tanning, like parents, friends or romantic partners (Bleakley et al., 2018). Among frequent indoor tanners, one of the reasons for tanning include social acceptance since individuals may be influenced by having friends that use indoor tanning devices (CDC, 2019a). 
  • Address appearance concerns and psychological effects of tanning associated with feeling more attractive and confident (CDC, 2019a). Highlight the short-term gains of quitting, like saving money and reducing skin damage (Glanz et al., 2019 & Bleakley et al., 2018). 
     

Emphasize the importance of policy, systems and environmental (PSE) change strategies to reduce the impact of melanoma and skin cancer at the community level

  • Combine PSE change with a strong communication strategy to make your efforts more effective. 
  • Explain to your audience why the data is relevant and how it impacts your audience. Use cancer data to inform PSE change efforts (NCI, 2011).
  • Engage with other partners like local parks, recreational facilities, clinicians and outdoor community events to promote your efforts. Ensure you are following and communicating with relevant partners and intended audiences on social media.
  • Learn from other organizations’ successful interventions to reduce the impact of melanoma and skin cancer. Highlight your organization’s success stories through tools like Action for PSE Change or CDC’s Skin Cancer Prevention Success Stories
  • Focus on community engagement to empower communities to take part in the PSE change process and advocate for their own health. Community-based systematic changes lead to more consistent long-term health improvements than temporary interventions (ACS, 2015). 
Graphic diagram of sample PSE change ideas to consider. Branches include pictures of a tree for provision of shade, indoor tanning bed for tanning legislation, image of construction workers for policies for outdoor workers, and image of school for school policies.

Communicating with Diverse Audiences

Certain groups experience disparities in melanoma and skin cancer incidence, mortality, and survival (National Cancer Institute, 2020). Cancer health disparities are complex and affected by various factors, such as social determinants of health, behavior, biology, genetics, and more (National Cancer Institute, 2020). Communication-related issues may also play a role in cancer disparities (White-Means and Osmani, 2017). Consider the information most useful to each diverse group.

Below you will find considerations for specific audiences, including: Black/African American, Hispanic/Latinx, Asian Americans, Native Hawaiians and Pacific Islanders [AANHPI], and American Indian/Alaska Native [AI/AN] and LGBTQ individuals.

 It is important to tailor communication to these populations of focus with messaging that also addresses conditions where these communities live, learn, work and play, as these factors can impact a wide range of health risks and outcomes (CDC, 2021).

Black persons have a lower incidence rate of melanoma compared to White persons. However, the five-year survival rate for Blacks is 71% compared to 93% for White persons (American Cancer Society, 2022). Black persons are often diagnosed at a later stage and/or diagnosed with more aggressive types of melanomas (Culp & Lunsford, 2019). According to the Melanoma Research Alliance, people of color are more likely to develop rare melanoma subtypes not caused by the sun and have lesions that may appear on the palms or soles of the feet. Furthermore, Black persons consider their risk of getting skin cancer to be low due to having a darker skin tone and/or lack of family history (Lunsford et al., 2018). The use of sunscreen was linked to beauty and attractiveness rather than reducing skin cancer risk (Lunsford et al., 2018).
 
Tailored messaging can address the misinformation about the risks and benefits of skin cancer prevention (Lunsford et al., 2018). For example, inform Black persons that sun protection not only prevents skin aging, but can reduce skin cancer risk (Lundsford et al., 2018), and that a family history of skin cancer can elevates an individual’s risk of skin cancer (CDC, 2021a). Additional education on topics, such as sun protection factor (SPF) levels and the signs/symptoms of extreme skin reactions to sun exposure (including the presentation of sunburn in skin of color), may be helpful to share in messaging.
 
Secondly, for healthcare providers, increased awareness of melanoma in Black persons is crucial. Messaging tailored towards clinicians should emphasize education and awareness of different melanoma types and their presentation in people with darker skin tones, which may be helpful in improving timely diagnosis.  
 
Within the past two decades, melanoma incidence among Hispanic persons has risen by 20% (Perez, 2019). Compared to other racial and ethnic groups, Hispanic persons have the third highest incidence of melanoma (U.S. Cancer Statistics Working Group, 2021b). Hispanic persons are younger at diagnosis, present with later stages of disease and have lower survival rates compared to White persons (Perez, 2019). This may be attributed to misbeliefs about the risks and benefits of skin cancer prevention, lack of linguistic or culturally appropriate screening efforts and lower use of sun-safety practices due to acculturation (CDC, 2019a & Perez, 2019). Acculturation is an individual’s adoption of attitudes, norms and behaviors from multiple cultures (Coups et al., 2013). Hispanic persons adapting to life in the U.S. may participate in social norm behaviors that can increase their risk of skin cancer, such as higher rates of sunscreen use, sunbathing and indoor tanning (Coups et al., 2013). Furthermore, Hispanic persons make up a large proportion of workers in outdoor occupations, such as landscaping, construction and farming (Niu et al., 2022). Hispanic day laborers reported experiencing one or more sunburns and symptoms of heat illness when working in the summer, both of which increases the risk of skin cancer (Niu et al., 2022). 
 
Messaging for this population should be: 1) linguistically- and culturally- appropriate, 2) emphasize education on sun-safety practices and increasing confidence that Hispanic persons can prevent skin cancer and 3) dispel the myth that melanoma only affects people with lighter skin tones (Perez, 2019). Occupational messaging can address the creation of workplaces that provides sun protection and adding sun safety to workplace policies to increase sun protective behaviors and reduce skin cancer risks among Hispanic outdoor workers (Ragan et al., 2019).
 
Hispanic persons also reported seeing messages about sunburn and sun protection from television news and/or social media posts, therefore, utilizing a variety of channels to reach this population may be helpful (Lunsford et al., 2018). Messaging tailored towards healthcare providers can highlight the importance of culturally-appropriate patient education on topics such as melanoma risk factors and different skin cancer types more commonly found in Hispanic persons (Perez, 2019). 
 
Abbreviation Used: Asian American, Native Hawaiian, Pacific Islander (AANHPI)
 
AANHPI persons are diagnosed less frequently with skin cancer compared to White persons, but they often have poor survival rates once diagnosed and are more likely to be diagnosed at later stages (Zheng et al., 2021). AANHPI persons were more likely to seek shade and wear long-sleeved clothing, but had lower rates of sunscreen use compared to White persons (Supapannachart et al., 2022).  Additionally, differences in skin cancer risk and occurrence between subgroups may be attributed to differences in cultural practices, skin types and their reaction to UV rays, and perceptions of skin color. For example, Asian Indian individuals were less likely to apply sunscreen or wear hats compared to Chinese individuals (Supapannachart et al., 2022).
 
Furthermore, sun protective behaviors and attitudes may differ depending on where an individual grew up (Supapannachart et al., 2022). Acculturation to living in the U.S. and exposure to social norms may increase one’s desire to tan (Bowers et al., 2021).  AANHPI persons may prefer lighter skin tones due to colorism, which a form of discrimination that assigns lighter skin tone with privilege and is associated with colonialism and internalized racism (Chen & Francis-Tan, 2021).
 
Health communication materials and clinical practice should be culturally-tailored to different skin cancer presentations as well as awareness of varying sun protective behaviors between AANHPI sub-groups. Messaging can counteract the belief that AANHPIs cannot be affected by skin cancer and encourage regular skin examinations to prevent delayed diagnoses (Zheng et al., 2021). Messaging tailored towards healthcare providers should raise awareness of under-diagnosing melanoma in AANHPI persons. When counseling patients on skin cancer risks, knowing the cultural impact of colorism may also be beneficial when communicating with this population (Zheng et al., 2021). 
 
Abbreviation Used: American Indian/Alaska Native (AI/AN)
 
Compared to other racial and ethnic groups, AI/AN persons have the second highest incidence of melanoma (U.S. Cancer Statistics Working Group, 2021b). The incidence of melanoma among AI/AN persons is about three times less than that of White persons (U.S. Cancer Statistics Working Group, 2021a), with the highest occurrence of melanomas in the Southern Plains region (U.S. Cancer Statistics Working Group, 2021a).
 
Almost 10% of AI persons believe that they cannot develop skin cancer and about 90% of them reported having been sunburned at least once (Maarouf et al, 2019). The high percentage of individuals who have had a sunburn calls for a better understanding of the association between UV radiation and melanoma in this population, since a large proportion resides in U.S. states with a high exposure to UV radiation (Kryatova & Okoye, 2015; Maarouf et al., 2019). Similar to other racial and ethnic groups, skin cancer among AI persons often goes undiagnosed until more advanced stages (Kryatova & Okoye, 2015). Furthermore, AI persons often do not understand the causes of skin cancer due to limited access to healthcare services and dermatologists on AI reservations (Maarouf et al., 2019). To improve melanoma outcomes for AI persons, there is a need for culturally-tailored education on skin cancer as well as understanding the impact of colonization on the presentation of different skin tones among AI/AN persons (Idoate, 2021).
 
Messaging for indigenous populations may focus on the need for culturally-tailored resources on general sun-safety for urban AI/AN communities, but also promoting sun protection at community and cultural activities that have a high sun exposure (American Indian Cancer Foundation, 2020).  Messaging that provides information about the causes and treatment of skin cancer, paired with personal narratives and family experiences, may improve awareness of skin cancer for this group (Idaote et al., 2020).   
 
Abbreviation Used: Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgender, Queer (LGBTQ)
 
Skin cancer (including basal cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, and melanoma) is one of the top five most common cancers among LBGTQ persons (Scout & Rhoten, 2021). Sexual minority men (SMM), men who identify as gay or bisexual, are twice as likely to have skin cancer and are six times more likely to report using indoor tanning compared with heterosexual men (Mansh et al., 2015). Motivations for indoor tanning were primarily related to one’s appearance, where tanned skin is perceived as more physically appealing (Admassu et al., 2019). On the other hand, sexual minority women reported lower or equal rates of both indoor tanning and skin cancer compared with heterosexual women (Singer et al., 2020).
 
Skin cancer prevalence and indoor tanning behaviors vary by sexual orientation among LGBTQ persons. One particular study found that indoor tanning salons were more likely to be located in neighborhoods with higher concentrations of male-male partnered households, possibly contributing to the increased use of indoor tanning in this population (Chen et al., 2019). Public health efforts predominately addressing skin cancer risk behaviors in young women may be overlooking SMM, a newly identified high risk population for skin cancer (Mansh & Arron, 2016).
 
Health communication efforts should highlight the risks of indoor tanning and skin cancer as a LGBTQ community issue (Admassu et al., 2019). Messaging that addresses the negatives of indoor tanning, such as skin wrinkles, skin aging and high costs, may be effective at discouraging SMM from indoor tanning (Admassu et al., 2019). Messaging tailored towards healthcare providers should emphasize the importance of assessing sexual orientation during medical visits in order to provide more thorough skin cancer counseling and screening (Mansh & Arron, 2016). 
 

Melanoma and Skin Cancer Resources

Resource

Description

Action for PSE Change

The George Washington University (GW) Cancer Center’s Action for PSE Change tool is an online platform to help comprehensive cancer control professionals, coalitions and communities with improving health across the cancer continuum through Policy, Systems and Environmental (PSE) changes. This platform offers basic information on the PSE change approach and resources on where to find and how to use cancer data and other resources to advance PSE change efforts. It will also help users learn from successful PSE change examples in the area of cancer control.

American Academy of Dermatology Association

The American Academy of Dermatology has free education resources to help you spread sun-safety messages and increase public awareness about skin cancer. 

Basic Information About Skin Cancer

This resource from the CDC includes information on skin cancer, the risks, symptoms, prevention, and treatments.

CDC’s Skin Cancer Prevention Success Stories

CDC highlights programs that have found innovative ways to help prevent skin cancer in their communities. 

CDC’s Melanoma Dashboard

This interactive data visualization tool provides the latest relevant state and county-level data on melanoma incidence and mortality, UV levels, and other relevant data to inform skin cancer prevention efforts at the local level.

GW Cancer Center: Action for Policy, Systems, and Environmental (PSE) Change: A Training 

This training provides background information on the seven-step PSE change process, stepwise worksheets, a PSE action plan template, real world examples from comprehensive cancer control programs, an extensive resource list and approaches to help grow the PSE change evidence base.

GW Cancer Center: Together, Equitable, Accessible, Meaningful (TEAM) Training

This training aims to improve health equity by supporting organizational changes at the systems level. The training will help organizations implement quality improvements to advance equitable, accessible and patient-centered cancer care through improved patient-provider communication, cultural sensitivity, shared decision-making and attention to health literacy.

How to SPOT Skin Cancer 

This infographic from the American Academy of Dermatology Association can be used to regularly check skin. 

Moles to Melanoma: Recognizing the ABCDE Features

This resource from the National Cancer Institute has collected photographs of different pigmented skin lesions to help patients and other individuals recognize common moles, atypical moles, and melanomas.

National Council on Skin Cancer Prevention The mission of this organization is to prevent skin cancer through education, advocacy, and raising awareness. 
Prevention and Control of Skin Cancer In this resource, the CDC discusses the prevention and control of skin cancer, with particular attention to how we can all help people protect their skin and lives while enjoying the outdoors
Preventing Skin Cancer: Community Wide Interventions These interventions from the Community Preventative Services Task Force seek to increase preventative behaviors within a community by targeting a large part of the population in a defined area.
Resources to Share CDC offers scientifically accurate information about skin cancer in a variety of formats.
Skin Cancer Concerns in People of Color: Risk Factors and Prevention This article raises awareness regarding skin cancers in people of color by providing recommendations to clinicians and the general public for early detection and preventive measures.
Skin Cancer Foundation This organization empowers people to take a proactive approach to daily sun protection by offering educational resources on prevention, skin care information, risk factors, early detection, and treatment. 
Skin Cancer in People of Color Photo Gallery This resource shows photographs of different pigmented areas on people of color to help individuals and patients recognize moles, atypical moles, and melanomas.
Skin Cancer (Including Melanoma)-Patient Version Resource provided by the National Cancer Institute that provides an overview of skin cancer, information on treatment, causes and prevention, screening and coping with skin cancer. Also includes the latest on skin cancer research and statistics.
Skin Cancer Prevention Progress Report 2019  The CDC’s fifth annual progress report provides the latest national data on skin cancer, highlights successes, and identifies areas for improvement. 
Sun Safety Evidence-Based Programs Listing This list of sun-safety interventions from the Evidence-Based Cancer Control Programs website (formerly RTIPS) is a searchable database of evidence-based cancer control programs that provides program planners and public health practitioners easy and immediate access to: 1) programs tested in a research study, 2) publication(s) of the study findings, and 3) program materials used with a particular study population in a specific setting.
The Big See Campaign The Big See Campaign from the Skin Cancer Foundation aims to inspire you to open your eyes, get to know your skin, look in the mirror and keep these 3 words in mind: NEW, CHANGING or UNUSUAL. 

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Melanoma and Skin Cancer Awareness Month Messages and Graphics

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May is #SkinCancerAwareness month! Kick it off by checking out @CDCgov’s new #MelanomaDashboard for relevant prevention data: https://bit.ly/33mzgRA

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Image of black cancer ribbon and small sun stars on black background. Text reads Melanoma and Skin Cancer Awareness

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Programs have found many innovative ways to help prevent #skincancer in their communities. Learn more: http://bit.ly/2JhhyFY  @CDC_Cancer

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Image of different colored hands reaching up on gray hill background and black cancer ribbon. Text reads : Melanoma and Skin Cancer Awareness. Together we can reduce the risk of skin cancer in our communities. Visit CDC's Skin Cancer Prevention Success Stories for more info!

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If someone in your family has had #melanoma, you may be at increased risk. Learn about skin cancer risk factors from @CDCgov: https://bit.ly/2WYIstq

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Image of Black family talking with Black male doctor. Text reads Did you know, if someone in your family had melanoma, you may be at increased risk. Talk to your doctor today.

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What can you do to reduce your risk of skin cancer, including #melanoma? Get some tips: http://bit.ly/2GPxn6i

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Image of person wearing a wide brim hat and white tshirt. Text reads remember to practice sun safety and check your skin often! Background has yellow plants, grey circles and yellow polka dots.

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Sunlamps and tanning beds promise a bronzed body year-round, but the UV radiation from these devices poses serious health risks: http://bit.ly/2VG1eFy

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Image of indoor tanning bed

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Share your #SunSafeSelfie and join the conversation to raise awareness on sun protection! https://bit.ly/3dzFbIJ

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Image of woman taking a selfie at the beach. She's wearing sunglasses and a wide brim hat. Text reads: Share your #SunSafeSelfie

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#DYK community skin cancer prevention programs can prevent future #melanoma cases? Learn more: http://bit.ly/2GuFIgn

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Image of construction workers looking off into the distance. Text reads: Sun smart work is community skin cancer prevention.

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Exercising or being outside is great, but don't forget your sun protection! http://bit.ly/2uHWX8a

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Graphic show ways to protect your skin in the sun. Image of woman applying sunscreen and wearing a wide brim hat is centered. Text bubbles read: use sunscreen SPF 15 or higher, stay in the shade, wear sunglasses, wear a hat with wide brim, and wear long sleeved shirts and pants

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#CompCancer professionals: Looking for evidence-based interventions to prevent #melanoma in your community? Check out @theNCI and their Evidence-Based Cancer Control Programs for more info:  https://bit.ly/36H483Z

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Image of masked coworkers having a meeting. Text reads: Comp cancer professionals, looking for evidence-based interventions to prevent melanoma? Check out NCI's Evidence Based Cancer Control Programs for intervention strategies to reduce melanoma and skin cancer in your community!

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The Friday before Memorial Day is “Don’t Fry Day!” Take a moment to make sure you’re protecting yourself against #skincancer & #melanoma: https://bit.ly/3hReC38

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Image of rainbow beach umbrellas and chairs at the beach. Text reads Don't Fry Day, the Friday before Memorial Day

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Schools can play an active role in preventing skin cancers like #melanoma. Here's how you can get involved: https://bit.ly/34qWnhP

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Image of playground under shade covering

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What are some of the signs of #melanoma? This guide from @CDCgov can help you assess changes in your skin: http://bit.ly/2GSmXTc

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Chart on how to conduct self skin exam: A for asymmetry, B for border, C for color, D for diameter and E for Evolving. Background image is of beach umbrella.

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#CompCancer professionals: Looking for PSE change solutions to prevent skin cancer? Start here: https://bit.ly/2Vj04Ob #MelanomaAwareness

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Image of sunny blue sky with clouds

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For people of color, when skin cancer develops in non sun- exposed areas, it’s often in a late stage when diagnosed. Luckily, you can find #skincancer early. Check out these tips: https://bit.ly/3dwS59o

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Image of different colored hands on a yellow wall. Text reads: No one is immune to skin cancer.

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For Black persons, #melanoma can occur in areas that get little sun exposure, like the palms of the hands, soles of the feet, and nail areas. Know the statistics:  https://bit.ly/2QTkezv

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Image of young Black woman and man wearing white t-shirts standing in front of red background. Text reads: Black persons are more than 3x likely to be diagnosed with melanoma at a later stage. Take the time to check your skin today.

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In the past two decades, melanoma cases have risen by 20% among Hispanic persons. No one is immune to skin cancer. Get the facts here: https://bit.ly/2QTkezv

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Image of Hispanic man and woman laying down on grass smiling up. Text reads: In the past two decades, melanoma cases have risen by 20% among Hispanic persons. Know your skin type and protect your skin from the sun.

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American Indian/Alaska Native persons have the second highest occurrence of melanoma compared to other racial/ethnic groups. Read about indigenous perspectives on skin cancer here: https://bit.ly/3pOkVbU

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Image of young American Indian girl smiling. Text in yellow bubble reads: American Indians do get skin cancer. Protect your skin from the sun.

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#DYK that Asian American, Native Hawaiian and Pacific Islanders can still get skin cancer, even though they are less likely to get sunburned? Check out this infographic: https://bit.ly/3pOV7wv

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Image of young Asian American woman standing at the park. Text reads: No one is immune to skin cancer. Practice sun safety and check your skin often.

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#DYK men who identify as gay or bisexual are twice as likely to have skin cancer compared to heterosexual men? Learn more about these disparities: https://bit.ly/3HSuI71

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Image of male gay couple in an embrace and smiling at camera

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Spending more time outdoors during the #COVID19 #pandemic? While summer can be a great time to safely gather for picnics, family reunions and weddings, don't forget to practice sun safety! Read more: https://bit.ly/3Nj3VF1  

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Image of group of friends having a picnic outdoors. Text reads: Gathering outdoors? Don't forget sun protection!

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#COVID19 resulted in delays in diagnosis and treatment of melanoma. Healthcare professionals, here’s how to run your dermatology practice during the pandemic: https://bit.ly/3IZhEym

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Image of masked female doctor standing in her office

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#MelanomaMonday is May 2nd this year! Wear your best black attire and head out to spread awareness of #melanoma and #skincancer! Take the time to learn about ways to prevent melanoma: https://bit.ly/36OFNti

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Image of black t-shirt with cancer ribbon. Background is decorated with blue and yellow decorations. Text reads: Melanoma Monday is May 2nd! Wear black for melanoma and skin cancer awareness!

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  1. Download the suggested graphic.
  2. Highlight the corresponding message with your cursor. Right click and select "Copy."
  3. Open Facebook. If you aren't already logged in, enter your email address (or phone number) and password, then tap "Log in."
  4. Tap the post box. This box is at the top of the News Feed. If you're posting to a group, you'll find the box just below the cover photo. There will generally be a phrase like "Write something" or "What's on your mind?" in the box.
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Did you know that May is skin cancer awareness month? Check out CDC’s new #MelanomaDashboard for access to the most recent and relevant data to maximize the impact of our skin cancer prevention efforts: https://bit.ly/33mzgRA

Image of black cancer ribbon and small sun stars on black background. Text reads Melanoma and Skin Cancer Awareness

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Communities across the country are finding innovative ways to reduce the burden of skin cancer and melanoma. Explore their stories and learn more: http://bit.ly/2JhhyFY

Image of different colored hands reaching up on gray hill background and black cancer ribbon. Text reads : Melanoma and Skin Cancer Awareness. Together we can reduce the risk of skin cancer in our communities. Visit CDC's Skin Cancer Prevention Success Stories for more info!

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Did you know that your risk may increase if someone in your family has had melanoma? It’s important to know your family history. For more on skin cancer risk factors: https://bit.ly/2WYIstq

Image of Black family talking with Black male doctor. Text reads Did you know, if someone in your family had melanoma, you may be at increased risk. Talk to your doctor today.

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What can you do to reduce your risk of skin cancer, including melanoma? Avoid indoor tanning, use sunscreen, and stay in the shade during midday hours: http://bit.ly/2GPxn6i

Image of person wearing a wide brim hat and white tshirt. Text reads remember to practice sun safety and check your skin often! Background has yellow plants, grey circles and yellow polka dots.

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Tanning your skin – in the sun or in a tanning bed – damages your skin. Over time, this damage can lead to prematurely aged skin (e.g., wrinkles and uneven skin color), and, in some cases, skin cancer: http://bit.ly/2VG1eFy  

Image of indoor tanning bed

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Share your #SunSafeSelfie and join the conversation to raise awareness on the benefits of sun protection! https://bit.ly/3dzFbIJ

Image of woman taking a selfie at the beach. She's wearing sunglasses and a wide brim hat. Text reads: Share your #SunSafeSelfie

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What can you do in your community to help prevent skin cancer? Community-based programs can prevent future cases and lower treatment costs: http://bit.ly/2GuFIgn

Image of construction workers looking off into the distance. Text reads: Sun smart work is community skin cancer prevention.

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Exercising or being outdoors has both physical and mental health benefits. Don't forget your sunscreen and hat when you’re getting your sweat on with Mother Nature! More tips here: http://bit.ly/2uHWX8a

Graphic show ways to protect your skin in the sun. Image of woman applying sunscreen and wearing a wide brim hat is centered. Text bubbles read: use sunscreen SPF 15 or higher, stay in the shade, wear sunglasses, wear a hat with wide brim, and wear long sleeved shirts and pants

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Looking for evidence-based interventions to prevent melanoma and other skin cancers in your community? NCI’s Evidence-Based Cancer Control Programs (EBCCP) is a great place to start: https://bit.ly/36H483Z

Image of masked coworkers having a meeting. Text reads: Comp cancer professionals, looking for evidence-based interventions to prevent melanoma? Check out NCI's Evidence Based Cancer Control Programs for intervention strategies to reduce melanoma and skin cancer in your community!

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The Friday before Memorial Day is “Don’t Fry Day!” Help us raise awareness and reduce the rates of skin cancer, including melanoma: https://bit.ly/3hReC38

Image of rainbow beach umbrellas and chairs at the beach. Text reads Don't Fry Day, the Friday before Memorial Day

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What can schools do to prevent melanoma and protect students from UV damage? This CDC resource has some practical tips: https://bit.ly/34qWnhP

Image of playground under shade covering

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Do you know the ABCDEs of melanoma? This handy guide reminds you to regularly check for changes in your skin and what to look for: http://bit.ly/2GSmXTc  

Chart on how to conduct self skin exam: A for asymmetry, B for border, C for color, D for diameter and E for Evolving. Background image is of beach umbrella.

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Comprehensive Cancer Control Professionals: Looking for policy, systems and environmental (PSE) change strategies to prevent skin cancer? Start with the Surgeon General’s Call to Action: https://bit.ly/2Vj04Ob

Image of sunny blue sky with clouds

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For people of color, when skin cancer develops in non sun-exposed areas, it’s often in a late stage when diagnosed. Luckily, you can find skin cancer early. Check out these tips on how you can look for warning signs: https://bit.ly/3dwS59o

Image of different colored hands on a yellow wall. Text reads: No one is immune to skin cancer.

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For Black persons, #melanoma can occur in areas that get little sun exposure, like the palms of the hands, soles of the feet, and nail areas. Know the statistics: https://bit.ly/2QTkezv

Image of young Black woman and man wearing white t-shirts standing in front of red background. Text reads: Black persons are more than 3x likely to be diagnosed with melanoma at a later stage. Take the time to check your skin today.

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In the past two decades, melanoma cases have risen by 20% among Hispanic persons. No one is immune to skin cancer. Get the facts: https://bit.ly/2QTkezv
Image of Hispanic man and woman laying down on grass smiling up. Text reads: In the past two decades, melanoma cases have risen by 20% among Hispanic persons. Know your skin type and protect your skin from the sun.

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American Indian/Alaska Native persons have the second highest occurrence of melanoma compared to other racial/ethnic groups. Read about indigenous perspectives on skin cancer here: https://bit.ly/3pOkVbU
Image of young American Indian girl smiling. Text in yellow bubble reads: American Indians do get skin cancer. Protect your skin from the sun.

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Did you know that Asian American, Native Hawaiian and Pacific Islanders can still get skin cancer, even though they are less likely to get sunburned? Check out this infographic here: https://bit.ly/3pOV7wv
Image of young Asian American woman standing at the park. Text reads: No one is immune to skin cancer. Practice sun safety and check your skin often.

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Did you know that men who identify as gay or bisexual are twice as likely to have skin cancer and six times more likely to use tanning beds compared to heterosexual men? Learn more about these disparities: https://bit.ly/3HSuI71
Image of male gay couple in an embrace and smiling at camera

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Spending more time outdoors during the #COVID19 #pandemic? While summer is a great time to safely gather for picnics, family reunions and weddings, don't forget to practice sun safety! Read more: https://bit.ly/3Nj3VF1   
Image of group of friends having a picnic outdoors. Text reads: Gathering outdoors? Don't forget sun protection!

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COVID-19 resulted in delays in diagnosis and treatment of melanoma. Healthcare professionals, here’s how to run your dermatology practice during the pandemic: https://bit.ly/3IZhEym
Image of masked female doctor standing in her office

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#MelanomaMonday is May 2nd this year! Wear your best black attire and head out to spread awareness of #melanoma and #skincancer! Take the time to learn about ways to prevent melanoma: https://bit.ly/36OFNti
Image of black t-shirt with cancer ribbon. Background is decorated with blue and yellow decorations. Text reads: Melanoma Monday is May 2nd! Wear black for melanoma and skin cancer awareness!

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LinkedIn

How to Post on LinkedIn
  1. Download the suggested graphic.
  2. Highlight the corresponding message with your cursor. Right click and select "Copy."
  3. Open LinkedIn. If you aren't already logged in, enter your email address and password, then tap "Log in."
  4. Tap "Start a post" from the main share box. This box is at the top of your profile.
  5. Tap "Photo" from the top of the post screen, then select the downloaded graphic to upload and tap "Done." Doing so adds the photo to your post.
  6. Tap "Post." It's in the the bottom-right. Doing so will create your post and add it to the page you're on.
Message Suggested Graphic

Healthcare Professionals: May is a great time to brush up on current information about skin cancer screening. This summary from the National Cancer Institute provides an overview and description of the evidence: http://bit.ly/2Ya9ZVS

Image of clinician in scrubs working on computer

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Melanoma is one of the top 10 cancers by rates of new cancer cases in the United States. This data visualization tool presents U.S. Cancer Statistics data and demographic trends in an easy-to-understand visual format: http://bit.ly/2KxPy3r

Text reads: Skin Cancer is one of the top 10 most common cancers in the U.S. Background is made up of black sand with images of sunglasses, hat, beach umbrella, beach ball, ocean waves and suncreen around border

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May is a great time to spread the word about melanoma and skin cancer prevention with these resources from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention: https://bit.ly/2QIBLdO

Image of family at the beach. Foreground is of young girl running with beach ball. Overlay text reads: Melanoma and Skin Cancer Awareness Month

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Healthcare Professionals: Consider counseling your patients who are at high risk for melanoma -including fair-skinned patients and melanoma survivors -to use sun safety practices: https://bit.ly/2HBZXug

Image of dermatologist checking a patient's skin

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Despite the challenges we face during the COVID-19 pandemic, prevention of melanoma and other skin cancers remains a public health priority: https://bit.ly/31ofhAY

Image of surgical mask, with five small figurines of people on top of the mask. Comment bubble reads: Melanoma and Skin Cancer Awareness

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Instagram

How to Post on Instagram
  1. Download the suggested graphic.
  2. Highlight the corresponding message with your cursor. Right click and select "Copy."
  3. Open Instagram. If you aren't already logged in, enter your username (or phone number) and password, then tap "Log in."
  4. Tap the plus sign box. This box is at the top right. Select the downloaded graphic or drag it into the box to upload it.
  5. Select "Square (1:1)" for the aspect ratio, then click "Next."
  6. Ignore the filters screen, then click "Next" again.
  7. Paste the caption where it says, "Write a caption..." at the top.
  8. Under "Accessibility," consider adding alt text to describe the photo for people with visual impairments.
  9. Tap "Share." It's in the bottom-right corner of the screen.
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Did you know that May is #skincancer awareness month? Check out @CDCgov’s #MelanomaDashboard for access to the most recent and relevant data to maximize the impact of skin cancer prevention efforts. Visit ephtracking.cdc.gov/Applications/melanomadashboard for more info.

Image of black cancer ribbon and small sun stars on black background. Text reads Melanoma and Skin Cancer Awareness

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Check out @CDCgov’s Skin Cancer Prevention Success stories to learn about innovative ways to reduce the risk of skin cancer in your community. Visit cdc.gov/cancer/skin/success-stories for more info. 

Image of different colored hands reaching up on gray hill background and black cancer ribbon. Text reads : Melanoma and Skin Cancer Awareness. Together we can reduce the risk of skin cancer in our communities. Visit CDC's Skin Cancer Prevention Success Stories for more info!

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If someone in your family has had #melanoma, you may be at increased risk. Learn about #skincancer risk factors from @CDCgov. Visit cdc.gov/cancer/skin for more info.

Image of Black family talking with Black male doctor. Text reads Did you know, if someone in your family had melanoma, you may be at increased risk. Talk to your doctor today.

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What can you do to reduce your risk of #skincancer, including #melanoma? Avoid indoor tanning, use sunscreen, and stay in the shade during midday hours. Visit Visit cdc.gov/cancer/skin for more info.

Image of person wearing a wide brim hat and white tshirt. Text reads remember to practice sun safety and check your skin often! Background has yellow plants, grey circles and yellow polka dots.

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Sunlamps and tanning beds promise a bronzed body year-round, but the UV radiation from these devices poses serious health risks. Visit fda.gov/consumers/consumer-updates/indoor-tanning-risks-ultraviolet-rays for more info. 

Image of indoor tanning bed

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Share your #SunSafeSelfie to raise awareness on the benefits of sun protection! First, photograph yourself using sun protection. Second, post it on social media using the hashtag #SunSafeSelfie. Third, practice what you post! More info at cdc.gov/cancer/skin/sunsafeselfie

Image of woman taking a selfie at the beach. She's wearing sunglasses and a wide brim hat. Text reads: Share your #SunSafeSelfie

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#DYK community skin cancer prevention programs can prevent future #melanoma cases? Learn more at cdc.gov/vitalsigns/melanoma

Image of construction workers looking off into the distance. Text reads: Sun smart work is community skin cancer prevention.

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Exercising or being outside is great, but don't forget your sun protection! Read more at cdc.gov/cancer/skin on ways to protect your skin from the sun! 

Graphic show ways to protect your skin in the sun. Image of woman applying sunscreen and wearing a wide brim hat is centered. Text bubbles read: use sunscreen SPF 15 or higher, stay in the shade, wear sunglasses, wear a hat with wide brim, and wear long sleeved shirts and pants

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#CompCancer professionals: Looking for evidence-based interventions to prevent #melanoma in your community? Check out @NationalCancerInstitute’s Evidence-Based Cancer Control Programs (EBCCP) for information on how to get started in your community. Visit ebccp.cancercontrol.cancer.gov for more info! 

Image of masked coworkers having a meeting. Text reads: Comp cancer professionals, looking for evidence-based interventions to prevent melanoma? Check out NCI's Evidence Based Cancer Control Programs for intervention strategies to reduce melanoma and skin cancer in your community!

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The Friday before Memorial Day is #DontFryDay!” Take a moment to make sure you’re protecting yourself against #skincancer & #melanoma. Check out skincancerprevention.org/get-involved/don’t-fry-day for more info!

Image of rainbow beach umbrellas and chairs at the beach. Text reads Don't Fry Day, the Friday before Memorial Day

Download Graphic

What can schools do to prevent #melanoma and protect students from #UV damage? This @CDCgov resource has some practical tips at cdc.gov/cancer/skin/what_cdc_is_doing/guidelines

Image of playground under shade covering

Download Graphic

Do you know the ABCDEs of #melanoma? This handy guide reminds you to regularly check for changes in your skin and what to look for. Visit cdc.gov/ cancer/skin/basic_info for more info.

Chart on how to conduct self skin exam: A for asymmetry, B for border, C for color, D for diameter and E for Evolving. Background image is of beach umbrella.

Download Graphic

#CompCancer professionals: Looking for PSE change solutions to prevent skin cancer? Start here: www.hhs.gov/surgeongeneral/reports-and-publications/skin-cancer/consumer-booklet #MelanomaAwareness

Image of sunny blue sky with clouds

Download Graphic

When skin cancer develops in non sun- exposed areas, it’s often in a late stage when diagnosed. Luckily, you can find #skincancer early. Check out tips from the @aadskin1 on skin cancer in people of color. 

Image of different colored hands on a yellow wall. Text reads: No one is immune to skin cancer.

Download Graphic

For Black persons #melanoma can occur in areas that get little sun exposure, like the palms of the hands, soles of the feet, and nail areas. Know the statistics. Visit @skincancerorg for more info. 

Image of young Black woman and man wearing white t-shirts standing in front of red background. Text reads: Black persons are more than 3x likely to be diagnosed with melanoma at a later stage. Take the time to check your skin today.

Download Graphic
In the past two decades, melanoma cases have risen by 20% among Hispanic persons. No one is immune to skin cancer. Get the facts from the @skincancerorg
Image of Hispanic man and woman laying down on grass smiling up. Text reads: In the past two decades, melanoma cases have risen by 20% among Hispanic persons. Know your skin type and protect your skin from the sun.

Download Graphic
American Indian/Alaska Native persons have the second highest occurrence of #melanoma compared to other racial/ethnic groups. Promote sun-safety practices in our indigenous communities. Check out @americanindiancancer for more resources. 
Image of young American Indian girl smiling. Text in yellow bubble reads: American Indians do get skin cancer. Protect your skin from the sun.

Download Graphic
Did you know that Asian American, Native Hawaiian and Pacific Islanders can still get skin cancer, even though they are less likely to get sunburned? Practice sun-safety and do regular skin self-exams. Visit @cdcgov for more guidance on skin cancer prevention. 
Image of young Asian American woman standing at the park. Text reads: No one is immune to skin cancer. Practice sun safety and check your skin often.

Download Graphic
#DYK, men who identify as gay or bisexual are twice as likely to have skin cancer compared to heterosexual men? Visit @lgbtcancernetwork for more resources on skin cancer in the queer community. 
Image of male gay couple in an embrace and smiling at camera

Download Graphic
Spending more time outdoors during the #COVID19 #pandemic? While summer is a great time to safely gather for picnics, family reunions and weddings, don't forget to practice sun safety! Read more at cdc.gov/cancer/skin
Image of group of friends having a picnic outdoors. Text reads: Gathering outdoors? Don't forget sun protection!

Download Graphic
#COVID19 resulted in delays in diagnosis and treatment of melanoma. Healthcare professionals, here’s a step-by-step guide on how to run your dermatology practice during COVID-19. Check out aad.org/member/practice/coronavirus/running-your-dermatology-practice
Image of masked female doctor standing in her office

Download Graphic
#MelanomaMonday is May 2nd this year! Wear your best black attire and head out to spread awareness of melanoma and skin cancer! Information on melanoma prevention here at cdc.gov/cancer/skin
Image of black t-shirt with cancer ribbon. Background is decorated with blue and yellow decorations. Text reads: Melanoma Monday is May 2nd! Wear black for melanoma and skin cancer awareness!

Download Graphic

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Download All Messages and Graphics

Social media management tools like Hootsuite and Sprout Social offer bulk scheduling options for uploading multiple messages at once. The spreadsheets below can be adapted to fit multiple scheduling platforms or services. They are currently formatted to work with Sprout Social's bulk scheduling option. Please review the bulk scheduling format requirements for your specific platform before posting. Messages are sorted by network.

Download All Twitter Messages

Download All Facebook Messages

Download All LinkedIn Messages

Download All Instagram Messages

If you would like to download all images in this social media toolkit, click on each network below for a zip file with each network's graphics. Please note that these image sizes are slightly smaller than the links above due to file size limitations. If you would like to download full resolution versions, simply click on the "Download Graphic" link below each image in the message tables above.

Download All Twitter Graphics

Download All Facebook Graphics

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References

Admassu, N., Pimentel, M. A., Halley, M. C., Torres, J., Pascua, N., Katz, K. A., & Linos, E. (2019). Motivations among sexual-minority men for starting and stopping indoor tanning. The British journal of dermatology, 180(6), 1529–1530. https://doi.org/10.1111/bjd.17684

American Cancer Society. (2015). Policy, systems and environmental change resource guide. Retrieved from https://cancercontroltap.smhs.gwu.edu/news/policy-systems-and-environmental-change-resource-guide

American Cancer Society. (2019). How do I protect myself from UV rays? Retrieved from https://www.cancer.org/cancer/skin-cancer/prevention-and-early-detection/uv-protection.html 

American Cancer Society. (2019a). What should I look for on a skin self-exam? Retrieved from https://www.cancer.org/cancer/skin-cancer/prevention-and-early-detection/what-to-look-for.html 

American Cancer Society. (2021). Key Statistics for Melanoma Skin Cancer. Retrieved from https://www.cancer.org/cancer/melanoma-skin-cancer/about/key-statistics.html

American Cancer Society (2022). Cancer Facts & Figures 2022. https://www.cancer.org/content/dam/cancer-org/research/cancer-facts-and-statistics/annual-cancer-facts-and-figures/2022/2022-cancer-facts-and-figures.pdf

American Indian Cancer Foundation (2020). Cancer Plan 2020-2022. https://www.americanindiancancer.org/wp-content/uploads/2020/07/Urban-Cancer-Solutions-Cancer-Plan_-2020-2022-Version_-6_16_2020.pdf

Bleakley, A., Jordan, A., Ellithorpe, M. E., Lazovich, D., Grossman, S., & Glanz, K. (2018). A national survey of young women’s beliefs about quitting indoor tanning: Implications for health communication messages. Translational Behavioral Medicine, 8(6), 898-906. https://doi.org/10.1093/tbm/ibx007 

Bowen, D. J., Albrecht, T., Hay, J., Eggly, S., Harris-Wei, J., Meischke, H., & Burke, W. (2017). Communication among melanoma family members. Journal of Health Communication, 22(3), 198-204. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10810730.2016.1259374 

Bowers, J.M., Hamilton, J. G., Wu, Y. P., Moyer, A., & Hay, J. L. (2021). Acculturation, Sun Tanning Behavior, and Tanning Attitudes Among Asian College Students in the Northeastern USA. International Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 29(1), 25–35. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12529-021-09993-x

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2019). 1991-2019 High School Youth Risk Behavior Survey Data. Retrieved from https://yrbs-explorer.services.cdc.gov/#/graphs?questionCode=QNINDOORTANNING&topicCode=C08&location=XX&year=2019

Centers for Disease Prevention and Control (2019a). 2019 Skin Cancer Prevention Progress Report. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. https://www.cdc.gov/cancer/skin/pdf/SkinCancerPreventionProgressReport-2019-508.pdf

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2020). Kinds of Cancer. Retrieved from https://www.cdc.gov/cancer/kinds.htm#:~:text=Skin%20cancer%20is%20the%20most%20common%20cancer%20in%20the%20United%20States

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2020a). Sun Safety. Retrieved from https://www.cdc.gov/cancer/skin/basic_info/sun-safety.htm

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2021). About Social Determinants of Health (SDOH). Retrieved from https://www.cdc.gov/socialdeterminants/about.html

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2021a). What Are the Risk Factors for Skin Cancer? Retrieved from https://www.cdc.gov/cancer/skin/basic_info/risk_factors.htm

Chen, J.M. & Francis-Tan, A. (2021). Setting the Tone: An Investigation of Skin Color Bias in Asia. Race and Social Problems. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12552-021-09329-0

Chen, R., Hipp, J. A., Morrison, L., Henriksen, L., Swetter, S. M., & Linos, E. (2019). Association of Number of Indoor Tanning Salons With Neighborhoods With Higher Concentrations of Male-Male Partnered Households. JAMA Network Open, 2(10), e1912443–e1912443. https://doi.org/10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.12443

Community Preventive Services  Task Force (2014). Preventing Skin Cancer: Interventions in Outdoor Occupational Settings. https://www.thecommunityguide.org/sites/default/files/assets/Skin-Cancer-Outdoor-Occupational-Settings.pdf

Coups, E. J., Stapleton, J. L., Hudson, S. V., Medina-Forrester, A., Rosenberg, S. A., Gordon, M. A., Natale-Pereira, A., & Goydos, J. S. (2013). Linguistic acculturation and skin cancer-related behaviors among Hispanics in the southern and western United States. JAMA dermatology, 149(6), 679–686. https://doi.org/10.1001/jamadermatol.2013.745

Culp M.B., Lunsford N.B. (2019). Melanoma Among Non-Hispanic Black Americans. Prev Chronic Dis 2019;16:180640. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5888/pcd16.180640

Frieden, T. R. (2010). A framework for public health action: The health impact pyramid. American Journal of Public Health, 100(4), 590-595. http://dx.doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.2009.185652 

Glanz, K., Jordan, A., Lazovich, D., & Bleakley, A. (2019). Frequent indoor tanners’ beliefs about indoor tanning and cessation. American Journal of Health Promotion, 33(2), 293-299. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0890117118784235 

Hamilton, J.G., Genoff Garzon, M., Shah, I.H., Cadet, K., Shuk, E., Westerman, J.S., Hay, J.L., Offit, K., & Robson, M.E. (2020). Illustrating Cancer Risk: Patient Risk Communication Preferences and Interest Regarding a Novel BRCA1/2 Genetic Risk Modifier Test. Public health genomics, 23(1-2), 6-19. https://doi.org/10.1159/000505854

Holman, D. M., Ding, H., Guy, G. P. Jr., Watson, M., Hartman, A. M., & Perna, F. M. (2018). Prevalence of sun protection use and sunburn and association of demographic and behavioral characteristics with sunburn among US adults. JAMA Dermatology, 154(5), 561-568. http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jamadermatol.2018.0028 

Idoate, R., Gilbert, M., King, K. M., Spellman, L., McWilliams, B., Strong, B., Bronner, L., Siahpush, M., Ramos, A. K., Clarke, M., Michaud, T., Godfrey, M., & Solheim, J. (2020). Urban American Indian Community Health Beliefs Associated with Addressing Cancer in the Northern Plains Region. Journal of Cancer Education, 36(5), 996–1004. https://doi.org/10.1007/s13187-020-01727-z

Idoate, R., McWilliams, B. & Walsh, S. (2021, May 25). Indigenous Perspectives on Skin Cancer [Webinar]. American Indian Cancer Foundation. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=eqJQ8QmSQh4

Kann, L., McManus, T., Harris, W. A., Shanklin, S. I., Flint, K. H., Queen, B.,… & Ethier, K. A. (2018). Youth risk behavior surveillance - United States, 2017. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report Surveillance Summary, 67(8), 1-479. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6002027/

Kryatova, M.S. and Okoye, G.A. (2016), Dermatology in the North American Indian/Alaska Native population. Int J Dermatol, 55: 125-134. https://doi.org/10.1111/ijd.12977

Lunsford, N.B, Berktold, J., Holman, D. M., Stein, K., Prempeh, A., & Yerkes, A. (2018). Skin cancer knowledge, awareness, beliefs and preventive behaviors among black and hispanic men and women. Preventive medicine reports, 12, 203–209. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pmedr.2018.09.017

Maarouf, M., Zullo, S. W., DeCapite, T., & Shi, V. Y. (2019). Skin Cancer Epidemiology and Sun Protection Behaviors Among Native Americans. Journal of drugs in dermatology : JDD, 18(5), 420–423. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/31141849/

Mansh, M., & Arron, S. T. (2016). Indoor tanning and melanoma: are gay and bisexual men more at risk?. Melanoma management, 3(2), 89–92. https://doi.org/10.2217/mmt-2015-0002

Mansh, M., Katz, K. A., Linos, E., Chren, M. M., & Arron, S. (2015). Association of Skin Cancer and Indoor Tanning in Sexual Minority Men and Women. JAMA dermatology, 151(12), 1308–1316. https://doi.org/10.1001/jamadermatol.2015.3126

Mays, D. & Evans, W.D. (2017). The effects of gain-, loss-, and balanced-framed messages for preventing indoor tanning among young adult women. Journal of Health Communication, 22(7): 604–611. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10810730.2017.1332119 

Mays, D. & Tercyak, K. P. (2015). Framing indoor tanning warning messages to reduce skin cancer risks among young women: Implications for research and policy. American Journal of Public Health, 105(8), e70-e76. http://dx.doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.2015.302665 

Melanoma Research Alliance (n.d.). Melanoma & Skin of Color. https://www.curemelanoma.org/about-melanoma/people-of-color/

National Cancer Institute. (2020). Cancer disparities. Retrieved August 11, 2021 from https://www.cancer.gov/about-cancer/understanding/disparities

National Cancer Institute. (2011). Making data talk: A workbook. Retrieved from https://www.cancer.gov/publications/health-communication/making-data-talk.pdf

National Council on Skin Cancer Prevention. (2019). Don’t fry day [webpage]. Retrieved from https://www.skincancerprevention.org/programs/dont-fry-day

Niu, Z.; Riley, M.; Stapleton, J.L.; Ochsner, M.; Hernandez, G.; Kimmel, L.; Giovenco, D.P.; Hudson, S.V.; O’Malley, D.; Lozada, C.; et al. (2022). Sunburns and Sun Protection Behaviors among Male Hispanic Outdoor Day Laborers. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health, 19, 2524. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19052524

Parker, E.R. (2021). The influence of climate change on skin cancer incidence – A review of the evidence. International Journal of Women’s Dermatology, 7(1), 17–27. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijwd.2020.07.003 

Perez M. I. (2019). Skin Cancer in Hispanics in the United States. Journal of drugs in dermatology : JDD, 18(3), s117–s120. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/30909356/

Ragan, K.R., Buchanan Lunsford, N., Thomas, C. C., Tai, E. W., Sussell, A., & Holman, D. M. (2019). Skin Cancer Prevention Behaviors Among Agricultural and Construction Workers in the United States, 2015. Preventing Chronic Disease, 16, E15–E15. https://doi.org/10.5888/pcd16.180446

Schwarz, N., Sanna, L. J., Skurnik, I., & Yoon, C. (2007). Metacognitive experiences and the intricacies of setting people straight: Implications for debiasing and public information campaigns. Advances in Experimental Social Psychology, 39, 127-161. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0065-2601(06)39003-X 

Scout, N.F.N. & Rhoten, B. (2021) OUT: The National Cancer Survey, Summary of Findings. National LGBT Cancer Network. https://cancer-network.org/wp-content/uploads/2021/06/OUT-LGBTCancerNetwork-SurveyReport_Final.pdf

Singer, S., Tkachenko, E., Hartman, R. I., & Mostaghimi, A. (2020). Association Between Sexual Orientation and Lifetime Prevalence of Skin Cancer in the United States. JAMA dermatology, 156(4), 441–445. https://doi.org/10.1001/jamadermatol.2019.4196

Skin Cancer Foundation. (2021). Skin Cancer & Skin of Color: What you Need to Know. Retrieved from https://www.skincancer.org/skin-cancer-information/skin-cancer-skin-of-color/#stats

Smit, A.K., Keough, L.A., Hersch, J., Newson, A.J., Butow, P., Ed, D.,…, Cust, A.E. (2015). Public preferences for communicating personal genomic risk information: A focus group study. Health Expectations [Published online first]. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/hex.12406  

Supapannachart, K.J., Chen, S. C., Wang, Y., & Yeung, H. (2022). Skin Cancer Risk Factors and Screening Among Asian American Individuals. JAMA Dermatology (Chicago, Ill.). https://doi.org/10.1001/jamadermatol.2021.5657

Truong, A., Forbes, B., Zhang, M., McFadden, M., & Klein, S. (2021). A sun safety pilot program utilizing a tanning myths-focused video contest for Utah adolescents: A cross-sectional analysis (Preprint). JMIR Dermatology. https://doi.org/10.2196/20192

U.S. Cancer Statistics Working Group, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2021). United States Cancer Statistics Working Group, U.S. Cancer Statistics Data Visualizations Tool, based on 2020 submission data (1999-2018). https://gis.cdc.gov/Cancer/USCS/DataViz.html

U.S. Cancer Statistics Working Group, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2021a). United States Cancer Statistics Data Visualizations Tool, based on 2020 submission data (1999-2018): American Indian and Alaska Native restricted to PRCDA only. Retrieved from https://www.cdc.gov/cancer/uscs/about/tools/AIAN-incidence-analytic-db.htm

U.S. Cancer Statistics Working Group (2021b). U.S. Cancer Statistics Data Visualizations Tool, based on 2020 submission data (1999-2018): Leading Cancers by Age, Sex, Race, and Ethnicity. Retrieved from https://gis.cdc.gov/Cancer/USCS/#/Demographics/

U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (2014). The Surgeon General’s Call to Action to Prevent Skin Cancer. https://www.hhs.gov/sites/default/files/call-to-action-prevent-skin-cancer.pdf

U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (2018).  Skin Cancer Prevention: Behavioral Counseling. https://uspreventiveservicestaskforce.org/uspstf/recommendation/skin-cancer-counseling

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Zheng, Y.J., Ho, C., Lazar, A., & Ortiz-Urda, S. (2021). Poor melanoma outcomes and survival in Asian American and Pacific Islander patients. Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology, 84(6), 1725–1727. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jaad.2020.08.086

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